Sale 10890
Code Breakers
Online 19 November - 3 December 2014

Like the Enigma, the FIALKA uses a number of electromechanical cipher wheels to scramble the letters typed on the keyboard. With each key-press, the wheels move into a new position, thereby effectively changing the wiring and, hence, the alphabetical substitution for each letter typed on the keyboard. And that's where the similarity with the Enigma ends.

Rather than presenting the output on a lamp panel, the Fialka prints the coded letter directly onto a paper tape. At the same time it can punch the letter into the same paper tape in a 5-bit digital code much like the baudot code of a teletype machine. In addition, the Fialka contains a paper tape transmitter which can be used to transmit or duplicate a message. The Russians clearly drew cautions from the flaws in the Enigma's design and its operating procedures when they designed this sophisticated machine.

The Fialka was first introduced in 1956 and soon became one of the favorite machines of the Warsaw Pact and some allied nations, such as Cuba. It remained in use until very recently. The machine is similar to the American Sigaba and the KL-7.

At the heart of each Fialka machine is a drum with 10 different cipher wheels (rotors) that move in an irregular manner when a message is entered. Each wheel has 30 contacts at either side and is identified by a letter of the Russian alphabet. The 10 different wheels are placed on a spindle in the order dictated by the daily key in a manner similar to the wheels of an Enigma machine. The spindle is then placed inside the Fialka machine and then the entry disc and the reflector are locked in place. After setting the wheels to their initial position, the machine is ready for use.

The adjustable wheels in this Fialka have 30 disc-shaped contacts on the left side and 30 spring-loaded contact pins on the right side. Inside the wheel, the 30 contacts on the left are connected to the contacts on the right by a removable wiring maze wheel. This maze wheel can be removed and reinserted into the rotor in a total of 60 orientations. This gives each rotor a total of 60 different internal wiring configurations as compared to the single possible wiring configuration in an Enigma rotor.

At the outer rim of each wheel are a number of metal pins. These pins control the irregular stepping of the Fialka rotors and are called the Advance Blocking Pins. Each wheel has a different number of such pins at different locations.

In addition to defining the settings of the wheels, the daily key setting also involved the insertion of a unique key card in a drawer on the left side of the machine. The key card in the Fialka replaced the plugboard of the original Enigma design. The card allowed for additional letter scrambling beyond that of the rotor sets.

Additional Charge Details

Additional charges, including buyer’s premium, valued added, sales or compensating use tax or equivalent tax, any and all shipping expenses, including costs, packing and handling, any loss damage liability fees, and all other applicable charges will apply.

In addition to the hammer price, the buyer agrees to pay to us the buyer’s premium together with any applicable value added tax, sales, or compensating use tax or equivalent tax in the place of sale. The buyer’s premium is 25% of the hammer price of each lot up to and including $100,000, 20% of the excess of the hammer price above $100,000 and up to and including $2,000,000, and 12% of the excess of the hammer price above $2,000,000.

New York Sales tax or valued added tax, sales or compensating use tax of any applicable jurisdiction will be collected before the lot can be released. It is the buyer's responsibility to ascertain and pay all taxes due.
For international buyers, the terms of sale are Delivered Duty Unpaid (DDU) and duty and sales tax will be the sole responsibility of the buyer to be paid prior to shipment and/or delivery.

The winning bidder will also be responsible for any and all shipping expenses, including costs, packing and handling, and any loss damage liability fees. Provided that your purchased lots are paid for in full, cleared funds by the payment deadline, Christie’s will store your lots free of charge until the relevant deadline for shipment, at which time purchases will be shipped to you at your expense and pursuant to the instructions you provide at time of payment. Christie's will provide loss damage liability for purchased lots when arrangements are made for such lots to be shipped to you at a rate of 1% (one percent) of the total purchase price. This will be charged at check-out and will cover loss, theft, damage or breakage.

Payment Information

Payment:
You must pay the full amount due (comprising the hammer price, buyer’s premium, any applicable value added, sales or compensating use tax or equivalent tax, any and all shipping expenses, including costs, packing and handling, any loss damage liability fees and all other applicable charges) no later than 11:59 p.m. (EST) on Friday, December 5th, 2014. This applies even if you wish to export the lot and an export license is, or may be, required. You will not acquire title and own the lot until all amounts due to Christie’s have been received by Christie’s in full, cleared funds.

All payments must be made by credit card. We will accept credit cards with a MasterCard, Visa, Discover (including Diners Club International and JCB), American Express or China Union Pay (if the China Union Pay credit card has a Visa or MasterCard logo) logo. Other methods of payment will not be accepted. Christie’s will only accept payment from the registered bidder – individual or entity. If you registered and bid as an entity in accordance with the Conditions of Sale and Terms of Use, the entity will need to pay for any purchases via a credit card issued to the entity account.

Delivery:
Provided that your purchased lots are paid for in full, cleared funds by the payment deadline, Christie’s will store your purchased lots free of charge until the relevant deadline for shipment, at which time purchases will be shipped to you at your expense and pursuant to the instructions you provided at the time of payment. You must indicate if you wish to have your purchases shipped domestically or internationally at the time of check-out. Payment for your purchase, including any applicable charges for shipping, and a provision of your final shipping destination, must be returned to Christie’s by the payment deadline to qualify for this extended free-of-charge storage. If shipping arrangements have not been confirmed for any items sold or such items have not been paid for in full, cleared funds by the payment deadline, administration and handling fees may be charged at Christie’s full discretion. If such shipments can be facilitated, purchases will be shipped to the address you provide at check-out. Purchases cannot be delivered to P.O. boxes. Shipment of your purchases will be initiated within 5 business days upon receipt of payment. Notification of shipment will be sent to the email address entered at the time of registration.

In addition to the hammer price, buyer’s premium and any applicable value added, sales or compensating use tax or equivalent tax, you will be responsible for any and all shipping expenses, including costs, packing and handling, and any loss damage liability fees, as well as other applicable charges. Christie’s will provide loss damage liability for purchased lots when arrangements are made for such lots to be shipped or delivered to you at a rate of 1% (one percent) of the total purchase price. This will be charged at check-out and will cover loss, theft, damage or breakage.

Non-payment:
If the buyer fails to make payment in full, cleared funds by the payment deadline, Christie’s will be entitled in Christie’s absolute discretion to exercise one or more of the following rights or remedies (in addition to asserting any other rights or remedies available to us by law):
(i) To charge interest at such rate as we shall reasonably decide;
(ii) To hold the defaulting buyer liable for the total amount due and to commence legal proceedings for its recovery together with interest, legal fees and costs to the fullest extent permitted under applicable law;
(iii) To cancel the sale;
(iv) To resell the property publicly or privately on such terms as Christie’s and the seller shall think fit, and the buyer shall be liable for payment of any deficiency between the total amount originally due to us and the price obtained upon resale as well as for all costs, expenses, damages, legal fees and commissions and premiums of whatever kind associated with both sales or otherwise arising from the default;
(v) To pay to the seller an amount up to the net proceeds payable in respect of the amount bid by the defaulting buyer;
(vi) To set off against any amounts which we, or Christie’s International plc, or any of its affiliates, subsidiaries or parent companies worldwide, may owe to the buyer in any other transactions, the outstanding amount remaining unpaid by the buyer;
(vii) To reject at any future auction any bids made by or on behalf of the buyer or to obtain a deposit from the buyer before accepting any bids.
(viii) To exercise all the rights and remedies of a person holding security over any property in our possession owned by the buyer, whether by way of pledge, security interest or in any other way, to the fullest extent permitted by the law of the place where such property is located. The buyer will be deemed to have granted such security to us and we may retain such property as collateral security for such buyer's obligations to us; and/or
(ix) To take such other action as we deem necessary or appropriate.

This lot is offered by Christie's Inc