Details
Stephen Hawking (1942-2018).

Fundamental Breakdown of Physics in Gravitational Collapse. [OAP-420.] [Pasadena: California Institute of Technology,] Orange Aid Preprint Series in Nuclear, Atomic & Relativistic Astrophysics, August 1975. Provenance: the estate of the late Professor Stephen Hawking.

First and only edition with this title. The paper was published the following year with the revised title of ‘Breakdown of Predictability in Gravitational Collapse’ in Physical Review, D, 14, 2460, 15 November 1976. This important paper that points out the 'information paradox' in general relativity: because of the presence of horizons, information can be lost in a black hole, in violation of basic principles (unitarity) of quantum mechanics. Presumably the reviewer of the paper couldn’t quite bear to acknowledge that physics itself might break down and suggested a title change.

The Orange Aid Preprint Series was devised by the nuclear physicist, astrophysicist and Nobel laureate William Alfred Fowler (1911-1995) at CalTech, as a way of circulating academic papers pre-publication to interested parties. ‘Orange Aid’ preprints were sent to astrophysicists, ‘Lemon Aid’ preprints to nuclear physicists.

Quarto (274 x 213mm). 3 full-page diagrams. Original stapled orange wrappers, black tape spine (spine frayed at head and coming loose at tail).



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